The syllabus pattern is given based on the last years syllabus. If any changes or notifications in the syllabus will be updated soon. The following is the syllabus pattern for the food technology students appearing for gate. They have to choose ENGINEERING SCIENCES- XE as their option for GATE entrance.
- Engineering mathematics- compulsory
- Food technology ( major core )
- Fluid mechanics (optional )
- Material sciences ( optional)
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS (COMPULSORY) :
Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, inverse, rank, system of linear equations, symmetric,skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices. Hermitian, skew-Hermitian and unitary matrices. eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalisation of matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Indeterminate forms and L’Hospital rule, Maxima and minima, Taylor’s series, Fundamental and mean value-theorems of integral calculus. Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Beta and Gamma functions, Functions of two variables, limit, continuity, partial derivatives, Euler’s theorem for homogeneous functions, total derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange method of multipliers, double and triple integrals and their applications, sequence and series, tests for convergence, power series, Fourier Series, Half range sine and cosine series.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Application in solving potential problems, Line integral, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula (without proof), Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications.
Vector Calculus: Gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems (without proofs) applications.
Ordinary Differential Equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients, Variation of parameters method, higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy- Euler’s equations, power series solutions, Legendre polynomials and Bessel’s functions of the first kind and their properties.
Partial Differential Equations: Separation of variables method, Laplace equation, solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and simple theorems, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions, Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions, correlation and linear regression.
Numerical Methods: Solution of a system of linear equations by L-U decomposition,Gauss-Jordan and Gauss-Seidel Methods, Newton’s interpolation formulae, Solution of a polynomial and a transcendental equation by Newton-Raphson method, numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule and Gaussian quadrature, numerical solutions of first order differential equation by Euler’s method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.
FOOD TECHNOLOGY: (for food processing/ food technology undergraduates) ( Core )
Food Chemistry and Nutrition: Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of mono- oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre;
Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food;
Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism;
Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones;
Enzymes: Specificity, Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning;
Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.
Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells;
Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification;
Food spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat products;
Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and
Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter;
Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage,
vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.
Food Products Technology:
Processing principles: Canning, chilling, freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage, fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning in place and food laws.;
Grain products processing:Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded products and breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil; Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction, clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices;
Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilized milk, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder;
Animal products processing: Drying and canningof fish, post mortem changes, tenderization and freezing of meat, egg powder.
Food Engineering: Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids – generalized viscosity coefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement, Pumps and compressors;
Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simple geometry, NTU- effectiveness relationship of co-current and counter current double pipe heat
Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law, Steady state mass transfer,
Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films and laminates;
Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation of liquid, solid-solid mixing, and single screw extrusion;
Thermal operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluation in batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization; Mass transfer operations: Properties of air-water vapor mixture; Humidification and dehumidification operations.
OPTIONALS: 1 FLUID MECHANICS:
Fluid Properties: Relation between stress and strain rate for Newtonian fluids.
Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies. Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluid motion, concept of local and convective accelerations, steady and unsteady flows, control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy. Differential equations of mass and momentum (Euler equation), Bernoulli’s equation and its applications. Concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function and potential function.
Potential flow: elementary flow fields and principle of superposition, potential flow past a circular cylinder.
Dimensional analysis: Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity, importance of non-dimensional numbers. Fully-developed pipe flow, laminar and turbulent flows, friction factor, Darcy-Weisbach relation. Qualitative ideas of boundary layer and separation, streamlined and bluff bodies, drag and lift forces. Basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter, pitot-static tube and orifice plate.
OPTIONAL: 2 MATERIAL SCIENCES
Materials Science Structure: Atomic structure and bonding in materials. Crystal structure of materials, crystal systems, unit cells and space lattices, determination of structures of simple crystals by x-ray diffraction, miller indices of planes and directions, packing geometry in metallic, ionic and covalent solids. Concept of amorphous, single and polycrystalline structures and their effect on properties of materials. Crystal growth techniques. Imperfections in crystalline solids and their role in influencing various properties.
Diffusion: Fick’s laws and application of diffusion in sintering, doping of semiconductors and surface hardening of metals.
Metals and Alloys: Solid solutions, solubility limit, phase rule, binary phase diagrams, intermediate phases, intermetallic compounds, iron-iron carbide phase diagram, heat treatment of steels, cold, hot working of metals, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Microstrcture, properties and applications of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.
Ceramics: Structure, properties, processing and applications of traditional and advanced ceramics.
Polymers: Classification, polymerization, structure and properties, additives for polymer products, processing and applications.
Composites: Properties and applications of various composites.
Advanced Materials and Tools: Smart materials, exhibiting ferroelectric, piezoelectric, optoelectric, semiconducting behavior, lasers and optical fibers, photoconductivity and superconductivity, nanomaterials , synthesis, properties and applications, biomaterials, superalloys, shape memory alloys. Materials characterization techniques such as, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry.
Mechanical Properties: stress-strain diagrams of metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength, toughness, elongation, plastic deformation, viscoelasticity, hardness, impact strength, creep, fatigue, ductile and brittle fracture.
Thermal Properties: Heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion of materials.
Electronic Properties: Concept of energy band diagram for materials – conductors, semiconductors and insulators, electrical conductivity effect of temperature on conductility, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, dielectric properties.
Optical Properties: Reflection, refraction, absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation in solids.
MagneticProperties: rigin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials, paramagnetism, diamagnetism, antiferro magnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, magnetic hysterisis.
Environmental Degradation: Corrosion and oxidation of materials, prevention.